vrijdag 3 maart 2017

Paideia: a curriculum (in the form of an extensive reading list)




In ancient Greece, the ideal of education involved far more than the learning of facts and the mastering of skills. More, even, than the training of intellect and the honing of abstract reasoning skills. Beyond intellectual refinement and physical training, the Greek educational ideal also involved the shaping of moral character and philosophical excellence. The ideal education involved rhetoric, grammar, history, philosophy, scientific disciplines (such as mathematics, physics, geography and biology), literature, poetry, music and a variety of physical disciplines (such as gymnastics, wrestling, horsemanship and archery). All these aspects were not seen as separate, but as facets of an undivided whole. They supported and enhanced each other, jointly contributing to a complete education.

This educational ideal was called paideia.

Needless to say, for most people, such education would not be required or even feasible. The ancient Greeks did not advocate artificial egalitarianism. If one wasn’t intellectually gifted at all, but very good at being a carpenter, one should waste no time on philosophical education, but instead dedicate oneself to being the best carpenter that one can possibly be. There was no shame in this: the central concept of Greek culture was arête— a word that means both “virtue” and “excellence”. This double meaning is no coincidence: for the Greeks, these two things meant the same. The Greek mentality from the earliest days of Hellenic culture was “to be always pre-eminent”: Homeros records that instruction to Akhilleus by his father, Peleus. The goal in life was to set oneself apart from the masses through arête, by being the best at that which one does best. A man who is naturally gifted at carpentry who wastes his gift by being a very inadequate philosopher would be a fool by such standards. Talent is not to be wasted, but to be cultivated by a lifelong dedication to self-improvement. For a carpenter, to express his arête is to be the best carpenter he can be.

Yet the ancient Greeks were keenly aware that people are unequal. That some are more talented and intelligent than others. No namby-pamby notions of equality for the Greeks: those who were best should be the ones to lead. To the Greek mindset, there was such a thing as a “natural leader”. This is in fact where the term “aristocrat” comes from; aristos comes from arête, and means “he who is most virtuous” or “he who is most excellent”. Aristocracy, then, was meant to be a system wherein the best of men lead their people. And this word, lead, was applied quite literally. For instance, in Greek armies, the generals led their men from the front lines. To decline this was to relinquish command. A leader must lead or he is no leader at all.

Homeros teaches us that arête is the quality of such pre-eminent men. It is the ability to “make his hands keep his head against enemies, monsters, and dangers of all kinds, and to come out victorious.” Not just in the context of war, but also in the exercise of political power, the application of laws and even in the generous patronage of the arts. The ideal aristocrat, as he was envisioned, should in all his affairs be an agent of Kalos kai Agathos— the Beautiful and the Good.

The purpose of paideia was to shape young men of good standing into honourable citizens who exemplified that ideal. Rather than the specialised pursuit of excellence in one particular field, it aimed to train the best individuals in society, so that they might be the most virtuous and most excellent in all aspects of life. In the present day, we are told there is and must be a distinction between specialists (who know much about one topic) and generalists (who know some about many topics). This division is rooted in the idea that individuals are roughly equal and have a roughly equal capacity for knowledge and understanding. To the Greeks, this hare-brained way of looking at things would have made no sense at all. Individuals are not equal. There are those who have the capacity to know a lot about many subjects; the skill to master many arts and crafts.

Today, such people are badly needed, but hardly stimulated to rise to the occasion. Modern education is often aimed at equality of outcome, not at seeking out excellence and fostering it. There is a tendency to give much support to those who struggle to get by, while leaving those who are gifted to their own devices. In doing so, we sacrifice the full potential of the best among us. It is the gifted who should receive the most encouragement and the most persisting stimuli. If we could once again create a culture of arête, we would no longer be condemned to a world governed by mediocrity.

It is unlikely that the education system presently dominant in the Western world can be reformed to such ends. This existing system is far too egalitarian: it effectively turns us all into vaguely average generalists. Those ideally suited for a practical specialisation cannot keep up in most fields and are hurt by this. Those suited for paideia are not rewarded (or even punished) for their exceeding talents, and typically become both bored and lazy. Those who are the very best of all, of course, will refuse to be daunted. They will seek out knowledge where they can find it. They will educate themselves, outside—and despite—their formal schooling.

This reading list exists to help those who wish to embark on such a road of self-education and self-improvement. It is not a full system of education. We may assume that basic subjects are still taught in schools (if often poorly), and that intelligent people will be able to grasp such matters. Therefore, this list provides no texts on physics, geography, biology and such matters. The reader is presumed to possess at least a basic knowledge in such fields. Instead, this reading list aims to supplement the flawed education of the modern world. The classics are increasingly neglected these days. History is either taught ineptly or with a political slant that fits the reigning ideologies (and pathologies) of the present era. The fundamental notions of culture and civilisation are rarely explored in any meaningful way. And in the politically correct environment of our time, certain topics are taboo: criticism of multiculturalism and of islam, for instance, will rarely be tolerated in any classroom.

Other matters of great interest will simply go unmentioned in school in most cases, because there is no time for them. Hardly surprising: if teachers must educate unequally gifted students as if they were all equal, most of the effort will go into trying to ensure that the least gifted can keep up. That means less time spent on actually teaching new material to the talented. Literature and poetry suffer from the same problem: the whole class must, often, read the same works. With more challenging (and engaging) works, some or even many students will be unable to fully participate. So less “difficult” works are chosen, which all students can understand... and which hardly engage or inspire the most talented students.

This reading list is compiled to rectify all that. It is by no means a complete education, but it offers works that add to the typical curriculum of modern schooling. Furthermore, it is firmly directed to work against the biases of modern schooling as well. This reading list presents a worldview that might be described as “traditionalist”, “reactionary”, “aristocratic” and “libertarian”. It isn’t necessarily any of these things, or it can indeed be all of them at once. In most cases, at least one of those labels can reasonably be applied any given work on this list. The list as a whole presents a worldview that combines all of them. Of course, no one book can provide “the whole picture”, and I do not even endorse all the views presented in many of these books. I can say only that these books, some of which contradict each other outright on certain topics, are all worth reading. The worldview espoused therein, regardless of the name one wishes to give to it, certainly doesn’t conform to the mainstream ideas of modern society.

The list is not presented alphabetically, or even strictly chronologically, but rather in a way that one might call “historical” and “thematic”. First of all, the list is divided into sections. Some of these sections are divided into multiple parts. These are presented in a way that is mostly thematic (in a very general way). The goal is to present hundreds of books in a sequence whereby they best inform the reader in respect to one another. Thus, the reading list begins with a section on anthropological history, which mainly outlines the origins and early development of the Aryan (or “Indo-European”) peoples. Since most of the history on the list pertains to these peoples, and most of the classic masterpieces on the list are the creations of these peoples, such background is required— to properly understand where these peoples come from, and how they relate to each other. What common origins they share. From there, further inquiries can be started into philosophy, history, mythology, poetic masterpieces of various cultures.... etc. etc. (And without the perspective of a well-defined background, none of those subjects could be placed in their proper context.)

It cannot be denied that this entire reading list is eclectic. Nor can it be honestly claimed that it makes for easy reading (or that it has been meant to do so). In fact, the only concession in the name of accessibility has been to provide English translations for nearly all originally non-English works. In fact, some care and effort has been put into comparing various translations (especially of “the classics”) so that the best might be selected. Nevertheless, it is always best to read works in the original, and learning a new language is never a wasted effort. A few Dutch and German works have been listed in their original language, simply because I was unaware of any English translation (or did not have access to one, and was thus unable to judge its quality). This only applies to a handful of works, however; hardly an obstacle.

In particular, and of special note to those who actually wish to stick to the “reading order” presented here, it must be observed that the first five volumes on this list are quite possibly the most inaccessible of all the books included overall. There will be no apologies for this: as outlined above, those works provide vital context for the cultural background of the Aryan peoples. And moreover, this list isn’t intended for lazy people who cannot bring themselves to concentrate on complex texts. It is for people who want to know things they will not learn in today’s school and universities. It is for people who reject the governing notions of modernity and want to seek out more timeless ideas, with roots that go down our entire history.

Should you be one of those people, I sincerely hope you will find some use for this document. These are the works that I have valued. The works that I have found by myself, or through good and thoughtful friends, and which for the most part I would never have encountered at school. (And those that were covered in that curriculum were treated poorly, and with less affection than they deserve.) I hardly expect anyone to read all of these works. After all, these are the books that have shaped me, because they spoke to me. Others may find their answers elsewhere. But I suspect that those who share at least some of my cultural, philosophical, social and political convictions will find much here that they can cherish.





PAIDEIA

—a curriculum—



ANTHROPOLOGICAL HISTORY

Anthony, David W. — The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World

Demakopoulou, K. e.a. (ed.) — Gods and Heroes of the European Bronze Age

Mair, Victor H. — The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern Central Asia

Mallory, J. P. and Mair, Victor H. — The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West

Kuzmina, E. E. — The Origin of the Indo-Iranians (edited by J. P. Mallory)

Parpola, Asko — The Roots of Hinduism: The Early Aryans and the Indus Civilization

Bryce, Trevor — The Kingdom of the Hittites

Collis, John — The European Iron Age

Collis, John — The Celts: Origins, Myths & Inventions: Origins, Myths and Inventions

Green, Miranda (ed.) — The Celtic World

Castleden, Rodney — The Mycenaeans

Desborough, V. R. d'A. — The Last Mycenaeans and Their Successors: An Archaeological Survey, c.1200 - c.1000 B.C.

Desborough, V. R. d'A. — The Greek Dark Ages

Burkert, Walter — The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age (translation by Margaret E. Pinder)

Burkert, Walter — Babylon, Memphis, Persepolis: Eastern Contexts of Greek Culture

Kuzmina, E. E. — The Prehistory of the Silk Road (edited by Victor H. Mair)

Mair, Victor H. — Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World


THE CLASSICS (I)

The Epic of Gilgamesh (translation, in prose, by N. K. Sandars)

The Ṛgveda Saṃhitā (translated and edited by H. H. Wilson, Ravi Prakash Arya and K. L. Joshi)

Homeros (Homer) — The Iliad (many English translations available; I recommend using Richmond Lattimore’s, Robert Fitzgerald’s, Rodney Merrill’s or Edward McCrorie’s version)

Homeros (Homer) — The Odyssey (many English translations available; I recommend using Richmond Lattimore’s, Robert Fitzgerald’s, Rodney Merrill’s or Edward McCrorie’s version)

Hesiodos (Hesiod) — Hesiod: Theogony, Works and Days, Shield (translation by Apostolos N. Athanassakis)

The Homeric Hymns (translation by Apostolos N. Athanassakis)

The Orphic Hymns (translation by Apostolos N. Athanassakis and Benjamin M. Wolkow)


RELIGION (I)

(Pseudo-)Apollodoros — The Library of Greek Mythology (translation by Robin Hard)

Burkert, Walter — Greek Religion (translation by John Raffan)

Burkert, Walter — Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual

Burkert, Walter — Creation of the Sacred: Tracks of Biology in Early Religions


PHILOSOPHY (I)

Lao-Tzu — Tao Te Ching (Illustrated Edition, translated by Gia-Fu Feng and Jane English with Toinette Lippe)

Zhuang Zhou — Wandering on the Way: Early Taoist Tales and Parables of Chuang Tzu (translation by Victor H. Mair)

Herakleitos (Heraclitus) — Heraclitus: Fragments (translation by Brooks Haxton)


THE CLASSICS (II)

Sappho — the remaining fragments, as translated by Mary Barnard in Sappho: A New Translation and by Anne Carson in If Not, Winter: Fragments of Sappho (both translations are eminently worth reading)

Alkaios of Mutilene (Alcaeus of Mytilene) — the remaining fragments, as translated by A. M. Miller in Greek Lyric

Pindaros (Pindar) — Pindar I: Olympian Odes,  Pythian Odes (translation by William H. Race)

Pindaros (Pindar) — Pindar II: Nemean Odes, Isthmian Odes, Fragments (translation by William H. Race)

Aiskhulos (Aeschylus) — Aeschylus, I - Persians, Seven against Thebes, Suppliants, Prometheus Bound (translation by Alan H. Sommerstein)

Aiskhulos (Aeschylus) — Aeschylus, II - Oresteia: Agamemnon, Libation-Bearers, Eumenides (translation by Alan H. Sommerstein) [An equally gifted translation of these same plays can be found in The Complete Aeschylus: Volume I - The Oresteia, by Peter Burian and Alan Shapiro]

Aiskhulos (Aeschylus) — Aeschylus, III - Fragments (translation by Alan H. Sommerstein)

Sophokles — Sophocles: The Complete Plays (translation by Paul Roche) [An equally gifted translation of these same plays can be found in The Complete Plays of Sophocles: A New Translation, by robert Bagg and James Scully, and for the Theban plays in particular, Sophocles: The Theban Plays, by E. F. Watling is similarly worth reading]

Euripides — Euripides: Ten Plays (translation by Paul Roche) [For the other nine surviving plays of Euripides, I recommend looking to the five-part series The Complete Euripides, by Peter Burian and Alan Shapiro]

Aristophanes — Aristophanes: Acharnians, Knights (translation by Jeffrey Henderson)

Aristophanes — Aristophanes: Clouds, Wasps, Peace (translation by Jeffrey Henderson)

Aristophanes — Aristophanes: Birds, Lysistrata, Women at the Thesmophoria (translation by Jeffrey Henderson)

Aristophanes — Aristophanes: Frogs, Assemblywomen, Wealth (translation by Jeffrey Henderson)

Aristophanes — Aristophanes: Fragments (translation by Jeffrey Henderson)

Apollonios of Rhodos (Apollonius of Rhodes) — The Argonautika: The Story of Jason and the Quest for the Golden Fleece (translation by Peter Green)


OCCIDENTAL HISTORY (I)

Green, Peter — A Concise History of Ancient Greece to the Close of the Classical Era

Donlan, Walter — The Aristocratic Ideal And Selected Papers

Starr, Chester G. — The Aristocratic Temper of Greek Civilization

Herodotos (Herodotus) — The Histories of Herodotus (translation by Aubrey de Sélincourt)

Thoukudides (Thucydides) — The History of the Peloponnesian War (translation by Steven Lattimore)

Xenophon — A History of My Times (translation by Rex Warner)

Xenophon — The Persian Expedition (translation by Rex Warner)

Briant, Pierre — From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire

Kuhrt, Amélie — The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period

Lucius Flavius Arrianus — The Campaigns of Alexander (translation by Aubrey de Sélincourt)

Renault, Mary — The Nature of Alexander

Freeman, Phillip — Alexander the Great

Green, Peter — Alexander of Macedon, 356-323 B.C.; A Historical Biography

Heckel, Waldemar — Alexander's Marshals: A Study of the Makedonian Aristocracy and the Politics of Military Leadership

Romm, James — Ghost on the Throne: The Death of Alexander the Great and the Bloody Fight for His Empire

Green, Peter — Alexander to Actium: The Historical Evolution of the Hellenistic Age

Ogden, Daniel — Polygamy, Prostitutes and Death: The Hellenistic Dynasties

Russo, Lucio — The Forgotten Revolution: How Science Was Born in 300 BC and Why It Had to Be Reborn


PHILOSOPHY (II)

Aristoteles (Aristotle) — The Complete Works of Aristotle: the Revised Oxford Translation (edited, in two volumes, by Jonathan Barnes)

Epikouros (Epicurus) — The Art of Happiness (translation by John K. Strodach)

Mitsis, Phillip — Epicurus’ Ethical Theory: The Pleasures of Invulnerability


OCCIDENTAL HISTORY (II)

Dionusios of Halikarnassos (Dionysius of Halicarnassus) — Roman Antiquities (translation, in seven parts, by Earnest Cary)

Titus Livius (Livy) — The Early History of Rome (translation by Aubrey De Selincourt)

Titus Livius (Livy) — Rome and Italy (translation by Betty Radice)

Titus Livius (Livy) — The War with Hannibal (translation by Aubrey De Selincourt)

Titus Livius (Livy) — Rome and the Mediterrean (translation by Henry Bettenson)

Polubios (Polybius) — The Rise of the Roman Empire (translation by Ian Scott-Kilvert)

Cornell, T. J. — The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c.1000-264 BC)

Goldsworthy, Adrian — The Punic Wars

Syme, Ronald — The Roman Revolution, Revised Edition

Münzer, Friedrich — Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families (translation by Thérèse Ridley)

Gaius Julius Caesar — The Conquest of Gaul (translation by S. A. Handford)

Gaius Julius Caesar — The Civil War (translation by Jane P. Gardner)

Goldsworthy, Adrian — Caesar, Life of a Colossus

Goldsworthy, Adrian — Caesar's Civil War: 49–44 BC

Goldsworthy, Adrian — Augustus: First Emperor of Rome


THE CLASSICS (III)

Titus Lucretius Carus — The Nature of Things (translation by Alicia Stallings)

Publius Vergilius Maro (Virgil) — The Eclogues of Virgil: A Bilingual Edition (translation by David Ferry)

Publius Vergilius Maro (Virgil) — The Georgics: A Poem of the Land (translation by Kimberly Johnson)

Publius Vergilius Maro (Virgil) — The Aeneid of Virgil (translation by Allen Mandelbaum) or The Aeneid (translation by Robert Fitzgerald)

Publius Vergilius Maro (Virgil) — The Eclogues of Virgil: A Bilingual Edition (translation by David Ferry)

Publius Vergilius Maro (Virgil) — The Georgics: A Poem of the Land (translation by Kimberly Johnson)

Publius Vergilius Maro (Virgil) — The Aeneid of Virgil (translation by Allen Mandelbaum) or The Aeneid (translation by Robert Fitzgerald)

Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Horace) — The Satires of Horace (translation by A. M. Juster)

Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Horace) — The Complete Odes and Epodes (translation by David West)

Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid) — Heroides (translation by Harold Isbell)

Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid) — Metamorphoses (translation by A. D. Melville)

Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid) — Fasti (translation by Anthony J. Boyle and Roger D. Woodard)

Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid) — The Poems of Exile: Tristia and the Black Sea Letters (translation by Peter Green)

Lucius Annaeus Seneca (Seneca the Younger) — Seneca, Tragedies: Hercules, Trojan Women, Phoenician Women, Medea, Phaedra (translation by John G. Fitch)

Lucius Annaeus Seneca (Seneca the Younger) — Seneca, Tragedies: Oedipus, Agamemnon, Thyestes, Hercules on Oeta, Octavia (translation by John G. Fitch)

Tiberius Catius Asconius Silius Italicus — Silius Italicus: Punica, Books 1-8 (translation by J. D. Duff)

Tiberius Catius Asconius Silius Italicus — Silius Italicus: Punica, Books 9-17 (translation by J. D. Duff)

Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (Lucan) — Civil War (translation by Susan H. Braund)

Publius Papinius Statius — Thebaid: A Song of Thebes (translation by Jane Wilson Joyce)

Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch) — Plutarch: Moralia, Volume I - The Education of Children, How the Young Man Should Study Poetry, On Listening to Lectures, How to Tell a Flatterer from a Friend, How a Man May Become Aware of his Progress in Virtue (translation by Frank Cole Babbitt)

Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch) — Plutarch: Moralia, Volume II - How to Profit by One’s Enemies, On Having Many Friends, Chance, Virtue and Vice, Letter of Condolence to Apollonius, Advice about Keeping Well, Advice to Bride and Groom, Dinner of the Seven Wise Men, Superstition (translation by Frank Cole Babbitt)

Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch) — Plutarch: Moralia, Volume III - Sayings of Kings and Commanders, Sayings of Spartans, The Ancient Customs of the Spartans, Sayings of Spartan Women, Bravery of Women (translation by Frank Cole Babbitt)

Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch) — Plutarch: Moralia, Volume IV - Roman Questions, Greek Questions, Greek and Roman Parallel Stories, On the Fortune of the Romans, On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, Were the Athenians more Famous in War or in Wisdom? (translation by Frank Cole Babbitt)

Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch) — Plutarch: Moralia, Volume V - Isis and Osiris, The E at Delphi, The Oracles at Delphi No Longer Given in Verse, The Obsolescence of Oracles (translation by Frank Cole Babbitt)

Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch) — Plutarch: Moralia, Volume VI - Can Virtue Be Taught?, On Moral Virtue, On the Control of Anger, On Tranquility of Mind, On Brotherly Love, On Affection for Offspring, Whether Vice is Sufficient to Cause Unhappiness, Whether Affections of the Soul are Worse than Those of the Body, On Talkativeness, On Being a Busybody (translation by W. C. Helmbold)

Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch) — Plutarch: Moralia, Volume VII - On Love of Wealth. On Compliancy. On Envy and Hate. On Praising Oneself Inoffensively. On the Delays of the Divine Vengeance. On Fate, On the Sign of Socrates, On Exile, Consolation to his Wife (translation by Phillip H. De Lacy and Benedict Einarson)

Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch) — Plutarch: Moralia, Volume VIII - Table-talk, Books 1-6 (translation by P. A. Clement and H. B. Hoffleit)

Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch) — Plutarch: Moralia, Volume IX - Table-Talk, Books 7-9, Dialogue on Love (translation by Edwin L. Minar Jr., F. H. Sandbach and W. C. Helmbold)

Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch) — Plutarch: Moralia, Volume X - Love Stories, A Philosopher Ought to Converse Especially with Men in Power, To an Uneducated Ruler, Whether an Old Man Should Engage in Public Affairs, Precepts of Statecraft, On Monarchy, Democracy and Oligarchy, That We Ought not to Borrow, Lives of the Ten Orators, Comparison between Aristophanes and Menander (translation by H. N. Fowler, Phillip H. De Lacy and Benedict Einarson)

Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis (Juvenal) — The Sixteen Satires (translation by Peter Green)


OCCIDENTAL HISTORY (III)

Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch) — Plutarch, Lives (translation by Bernadotte Perrin)

Publius Cornelius Tacitus — The Annals of Imperial Rome (translation by Michael Grant)

Publius Cornelius Tacitus — The Histories (translation by Kenneth Wellesley)

Publius Cornelius Tacitus — The Agricola and the Germania (translation by Harold Mattingly)

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus — The Twelve Caesars (translation by Robert Graves)

Bennett, Julian — Trajan: Optimus Princeps

Birley, Anthony R. — Hadrian: The Restless Emperor

Watson, Alaric — Aurelian and the Third Century

Murdoch, Adrian — The Last Pagan: Julian the Apostate and the Death of the Ancient World

Bury, J. B. — History of the Later Roman Empire: From the Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian

Goldsworthy, Adrian — The Fall of the West: The Death of the Roman Superpower

Gibbon, Edward — The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire


RELIGION (II)

Beard, Mary and North, John and Price, Simon — Religions of Rome: Volume 1: A History

Beard, Mary and North, John and Price, Simon — Religions of Rome: Volume 2: A Sourcebook

Turcan, Robert — The Cults of the Roman Empire

Burkert, Walter — Ancient Mystery Cults

Smith, Rowland B. E. — Julian's Gods: Religion and Philosophy in the Thought and Action of Julian the Apostate

Evola, Julius — The Hermetic Tradition: Symbols and Teachings of the Royal Art

Evola, Julius — The Path of Enlightenment According to the Mithraic Mysteries

Collins, Derek — Magic in the Ancient Greek World

Ogden, Daniel — Night's Black Agents: Witches, Wizards and the Dead in the Ancient World

Ogden, Daniel — Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Sourcebook

Ogden, Daniel — Greek and Roman Necromancy

Gager, John G. (editor) — Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World


PHILOSOPHY (III)

Marcus Tullius Cicero — Cicero: The Nature of the Gods (translation by Horace C. P. McGregor)

Marcus Tullius Cicero — Cicero: On the Good Life (translation by Michael Grant)

Marcus Tullius Cicero — Cicero: On Moral Ends (edited and translated by Julia Annas and Raphael Woolf)

Marcus Tullius Cicero — Cicero: On the Ideal Orator (translation by James M. May and Jakob Wisse)

Marcus Aurelius — Meditations: with selected correspondence (translation by Robin Hard)


RELIGION (III)

McCoy, Dan — The Love of Destiny: the Sacred and the Profane in Germanic Polytheism

Ellis Davidson, H.R. — Gods and Myths of Northern Europe

Ellis Davidson, H.R. — The Lost Beliefs of Northern Europe

Ellis Davidson, H.R. — Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe: Early Scandinavian and Celtic Religions

Turville-Petre, E. O. G. — Myth and Religion of the North: The Religion of Ancient Scandinavia

Abram, Christopher — Myths of the Pagan North: The Gods of the Norsemen

DuBois, Thomas A. — Nordic Religions in the Viking Age

Kershaw, Kris — The One-eyed God: Odin and the (Indo-) Germanic Männerbünde

Price, Neil — The Viking Way: Religion and War in Late Iron Age Scandinavia


THE CLASSICS (IV)

The Poetic Edda (translation by Carolyne Larrington)

Snorri Sturlusson — Edda (translation by Anthony Faulkes)

The Story of the Volsungs: Volsunga Saga (translation by William Morris and Eirikr Magnusson)

The Nibelungenlied (translation by A. T. Hatto)

The Saga of King Hrolf Kraki (translation by Jesse L. Byock)

Beowulf (translation by Howell D. Chickering Jr.) [Beowulf: A New Verse Translation, by Roy M. Liuzza, is just as good: a slightly less literal, but poetically superior translation]

The Song of Roland (translation by Dorothy L. Sayers)


OCCIDENTAL HISTORY (IV)

Snorri Sturlason — Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway (translation by Lee M. Hollander)

Snorri Sturlason — Egil's Saga (translation by Hermann Palsson and Paul Edwards)

Njal's Saga (translation by Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Pálsson)

The Vinland Sagas: The Norse Discovery of America (translation by Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Pálsson)

Ahmad ibn Fadlan — Ibn Fadlan and the Land of Darkness: Arab Travellers in the Far North (translation by Paul Lunde and Caroline Stone)


MACROHISTORY AND CULTURAL HISTORY (I)

Spengler, Oswald — Der Untergang des Abendlandes

Toynbee, Arnold J. — A Study of History


RELIGION (IV)

Lane Fox, Robin — Pagans and Christians

Dalberg-Acton, John (Lord Acton) — The History of Freedom in Antiquity

Dalberg-Acton, John (Lord Acton) — The History of Freedom in Christianity

Stark, Rodney — The Rise of Christianity: How the Obscure, Marginal Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force in the Western World in a Few Centuries

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — “Christianity, the Foundation and Conservator of Freedom”, Religion & Liberty 7 (6), November – December 1997

Stark, Rodney — The Victory of Reason: How Christianity Led to Freedom, Capitalism, and Western Success

Siedentop, Larry — Inventing the Individual: The Origins of Western Liberalism

Hannam, James — God’s Philosophers: How the Medieval World Laid the Foundations of Modern Science

Stark, Rodney — Bearing False Witness: Debunking Centuries of Anti-Catholic History

Woods, Thomas — How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization

Tommaso d'Aquino (Thomas Aquinas) — The Summa Theologiæ

Tommaso d'Aquino (Thomas Aquinas) — The Summa contra Gentiles

Delfgaauw, Bernard — Thomas van Aquino: een kritische benadering van zijn filosofie


OCCIDENTAL HISTORY (V)

Pernoud, Regine — Those Terrible Middle Ages! Debunking the Myths

Starkey, David — The Monarchy of England: The Beginnings

Pirenne, Henri — A History of Europe: From the End of the Roman World in the West to the Beginnings of the Western States

Pirenne, Henri — Medieval Cities: Their Origins and the Revival of Trade

Pirenne, Henri — Economic and Social History of Medieval Europe

Pirenne, Henri — Mohammed and Charlemagne

Contreni, John G. — "The Carolingian Renaissance", in Renaissances before the Renaissance: cultural revivals of late antiquity and the Middle Ages

Gies, Frances and Gies, Joseph — Cathedral, Forge and Waterwheel: Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages

Pernoud, Regine — The Crusaders

Stark, Rodney — God's Battalions: The Case for the Crusades

Haskins, Charles Homer — The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century

Huizinga, Johan — Herfsttij der Middeleeuwen


BYZANTINE HISTORY

Ostrogorsky, George — History of the Byzantine State (revised edition, translated by Joan Hussey)

Mango, Cyril — Byzantium: The Empire of New Rome

Mango, Cyril — Byzantium and its Image: history and culture of the Byzantine Empire and its Heritage

Lemerle, Paul — Byzantine Humanism, the First Phase: Notes and Remarks on Education and Culture in Byzantium from Its Origins to the 10th Century (translation by Helen Lindsay and Ann Moffatt)


MACROHISTORY AND CULTURAL HISTORY (II)

Diamond, Jared — Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies

Ferguson, Niall — Civilization: The West and the Rest

Mokyr, Joel — A Culture of Growth: The Origins of the Modern Economy


OCCIDENTAL HISTORY (VI)

Diaz Del Castillo, Bernal — The Conquest of New Spain (translation by John M. Cohen)

Mann, Charles C. — 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus

Wheatcroft, Andrew — The Enemy at the Gate: Habsburgs, Ottomans, and the Battle for Europe

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — "The Age of the Guillotine", in Reflections on the French Revolution: A Hillsdale Symposium (ed. Stephen Tonsor)

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — "Operation Parricide: Sade, Robespierre, and the French Revolution", Fidelity Magazine, October 1989

Roosevelt, Theodore — The Naval War of 1812

Roosevelt, Theodore — The Winning of the West

DiLorenzo, Thomas — Hamilton's Curse: How Jefferson's Arch Enemy Betrayed the American Revolution – and What It Means for Americans Today

DiLorenzo, Thomas — How Capitalism Saved America: The Untold History of Our Country

DiLorenzo, Thomas — Lincoln Unmasked: What You're Not Supposed To Know about Dishonest Abe

DiLorenzo, Thomas — The Real Lincoln: A New Look at Abraham Lincoln, His Agenda, and an Unnecessary War

Dalberg-Acton, John (Lord Acton) — The Civil War in America: Its Place in History

Ferguson, Niall — Colossus: The Rise And Fall Of The American Empire.

Ferguson, Niall — Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World

Ferguson, Niall — The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World

Ferguson, Niall — The Pity of War

Ferguson, Niall — The War of the World: History's Age of Hatred

Sowell, Thomas — Ethnic America: A History

Johnson, Paul — Modern Times, Revised Edition: The World from the Twenties to the Nineties


RELIGION (V)

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — The Timeless Christian

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — “Hebrews and Christians”, The Rothbard-Rockwell Report 9 (4), April 1998

Raico, Ralph — The Place of Religion in the Liberal Philosophy of Constant, Tocqueville, and Lord Acton

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — “Revolution, Crime, and Sin in the Catholic World”, Modern Age 2 (2), June 1958


CULTURE AND CIVILISATION (I)

Jacob, Alexander — Nobilitas: A Study of European Aristocratic Philosophy from Ancient Greece to the Early Twentieth Century

Murray, Alexander C. — Germanic kinship structure: studies in law and society in antiquity and the early Middle Ages

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — “Credo of a Reactionary”, The American Mercury 57, July 1943

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — “The Artist and the Intellectual in Anglo-Saxonry and on the Continent”, Modern Age 3 (4), December 1959

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — "The Roots of Leftism in Christendom", The Freeman 18 (2), February 1968

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — "The Western Dilemma: Calvin or Rousseau?", Modern Age 15 (1), March 1971

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — "The Roots of ‘Anticapitalism’", The Freeman 22 (11), November 1972

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — "Scita Et Scienda: The Dwarfing of Modern Man", Imprimis, October 1974

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — “Economics in the Catholic World”, Religion & Liberty 4 (4), July/August 1994

Gómez Dávila, Nicolás — Don Colacho’s Aphorisms: English translations of the aphorisms of Nicolás Gómez Dávila

Ortega y Gasset, José — The Revolt of the Masses


POLITICAL THEORY (I)

Xenophon  — Cyropaedia: The Education of Cyrus (translated by H. G. Dakyns, edited by F. M. Stawell)

Marcus Tullius Cicero — Cicero: Selected Political Speeches (translation by Michael Grant)

Marcus Tullius Cicero — Cicero: Selected Works (translation by Michael Grant)

Marcus Tullius Cicero — Cicero: Murder Trials (translation by Michael Grant)

Marcus Tullius Cicero — Cicero: On Obligations (translation by  P. G. Walsh)

Marcus Tullius Cicero — Cicero: The Republic and The Laws (translation by  Niall Rudd)

Machiavelli, Niccolò — The Prince (translation by George Bull)

Machiavelli, Niccolò — The Discourses (translation by Leslie J. Walker)

Locke, John — Two Treatises of Government

Jefferson, Thomas — A Summary View of the Rights of British America

Jefferson, Thomas — The Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms

Jefferson, Thomas — The Rough Draft of the Declaration of Independence

Jefferson, Thomas — The Declaration of Independence

Jefferson, Thomas — Notes on the State of Virginia

Storing, Herbert J. and Dry, Murray (eds.) — The Complete Anti-Federalist 1–7

Thoreau, Henry David — Resistance to Civil Government (“Civil Disobedience”)

Tocqueville, Alexis de — Democracy in America

Jaume, Lucien — Tocqueville: The Aristocratic Sources of Liberty (translation by Arthur Goldhammer)


CULTURE AND CIVILISATION (II)

Evola, Julius — Heathen Imperialism

Evola, Julius — Revolt Against the Modern World: Politics, Religion, and Social Order in the Kali Yuga

Evola, Julius — Men Among the Ruins: Post-War Reflections of a Radical Traditionalist

Evola, Julius — Ride the Tiger: A Survival Manual for the Aristocrats of the Soul

Evola, Julius — The Path of Cinnabar: An Intellectual Autobiography

Evola, Julius — Fascism viewed from the Right


PHILOSOPHY (IV)

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm — Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm — Philosophie im tragischen Zeitalter der Griechen

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm — Menschliches, Allzumenschliches: Ein Buch für freie Geister

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm — Die fröhliche Wissenschaft

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm — Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm — Jenseits von Gut und Böse: Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft


POLITICAL THEORY (II)

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — The Menace of the Herd

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — Liberty or Equality

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — "Democracy’s Road to Tyranny", The Freeman 38 (5), May 1988

Mises, Ludwig von — Bureaucracy

Mises, Ludwig von — Omnipotent Government: The Rise of Total State and Total War


PHILOSOPHY (V)

Rand, Ayn — Philosophy: Who Needs It

Rand, Ayn — Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal


ECONOMICS (I)

Landes, David S., Mokyr, Joel and Baumol, William J. (eds.) — The Invention of Enterprise: Entrepreneurship from Ancient Mesopotamia to Modern Times

Mokyr, Joel — The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy

Schuettinger, Robert L. and Butler, Eamonn F. — Forty Centuries of Wage and Price Controls: How Not to Fight Inflation

Haskell, H. J. — The New Deal in Old Rome: How Government in the Ancient World Tried to Deal with Modern Problems

Mokyr, Joel — The Enlightened Economy: Britain and the Industrial Revolution, 1700-1850

De Soto, Hernando — The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else

Mises, Ludwig von — Theory and History: An Interpretation of Social and Economic Evolution

Mises, Ludwig von — Nation, State, and Economy

Bastiat, Frédéric — Selected Essays on Political Economy (translation by Seymour Cain)

Mises, Ludwig von — Liberalism: The Classical Tradition

Mises, Ludwig von — Human Action: A Treatise on Economics

Mises, Ludwig von — The Anti-Capitalistic Mentality

Mises, Ludwig von — The Ultimate Foundation of Economic Science

Hayek, Friedrich — Individualism and Economic Order


POLITICAL THEORY (III)

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — Leftism, From de Sade and Marx to Hitler and Marcuse

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — The Intelligent American's Guide to Europe

Hayek, Friedrich — The Constitution of Liberty

Hayek, Friedrich — The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism

Hayek, Friedrich — The Road to Serfdom


ECONOMICS (II)

Mises, Ludwig von — The Theory of Money and Credit

Mises, Ludwig von — A Critique of Interventionism

Mises, Ludwig von — Epistemological Problems of Economics

Mises, Ludwig von — "Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth"

Mises, Ludwig von — Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis

Mises, Ludwig von — Interventionism: An Economic Analysis

Mises, Ludwig von — Planning for Freedom

Mises, Ludwig von — On the Manipulation of Money and Credit

Mises, Ludwig von — Money, Method, and the Market Process

Mises, Ludwig von — Economic Freedom and Interventionism

Mises, Ludwig von — The Free Market and Its Enemies

Read, Leonard — Anything That's Peaceful: The Case for the Free Market

Hazlitt, Henry — Economics In One Lesson

Hazlitt, Henry — The Failure of the New Economics

Rothbard, Murray — Man, Economy, and State: A Treatise on Economic Principles

Rothbard, Murray — Power and Market, Government and the Economy

Sowell, Thomas — Applied Economics: Thinking Beyond Stage One

Sowell, Thomas — Basic Economics: A Common Sense Guide to the Economy

Sowell, Thomas — Economic Facts and Fallacies

Sowell, Thomas — On Classical Economics

Rothbard, Murray — America's Great Depression

Rothbard, Murray — The Mystery of Banking

Rothbard, Murray — The Case Against the Fed

Rothbard, Murray — The Case for a 100 Percent Gold Dollar

Rothbard, Murray — What Has Government Done to Our Money?

Lewis, Hunter — Are The Rich Necessary?

Lewis, Hunter — Where Keynes Went Wrong

Schiff, Peter — How an Economy Grows and Why it Crashes

Schlichter, Detlev — Paper Money Collapse

De Soto, Hernando — The Other Path: The Invisible Revolution in the Third World


POLITICAL THEORY (IV)

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — “Liberalism in America”, The Intercollegiate Review 33 (1), Fall 1997

Kuehnelt-Leddihn, Erik von — “Monarchy and War”, The Journal of Libertarian Studies 15 (1), December 2000

Kohr, Leopold — “Disunion Now: A Plea for a Society Based upon Small Autonomous Units”

Kohr, Leopold — The Breakdown of Nations

Kohr, Leopold — The Overdeveloped Nations: The Diseconomies Of Scale

Nock, Albert Jay — Our Enemy, the State

Hoppe, Hans-Hermann — Democracy: The God That Failed

Raico, Ralph — Classical Liberalism and the Austrian School

Rothbard, Murray — For a New Liberty, the Libertarian Manifesto

Rothbard, Murray — The Ethics of Liberty

Sumner, William Graham — The Forgotten Man

Nozick, Robert — Anarchy, State, and Utopia

Block, Walter — Defending the Undefendable


PHILOSOPHY (VI)

Rand, Ayn — Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology

Rasmussen, Douglas B. and Den Uyl, Douglas — Liberty and Nature: An Aristotelian Defense of Liberal Order

Rasmussen, Douglas B. and Den Uyl, Douglas — Liberalism Defended: The Challenge of Post-Modernity

Rasmussen, Douglas B. and Den Uyl, Douglas — Norms of Liberty: A Perfectionist Basis for Non-Perfectionist Politics

Delfgaauw, Bernard — De wijsgerige Thomas: terugblik op het neothomisme

Delfgaauw, Bernard — Terug naar de werkelijkheid

Delfgaauw, Bernard — Plicht en geluk

Delfgaauw, Bernard — Filosofie van de vervreemding als vervreemding van de filosofie

Dun, Frank van — Het fundamenteel rechtsbeginsel, een essay over de grondslagen van het recht

Dun, Frank van —  Mens, burger, fiscus: de belastingmaatschappij in natuurrechtelijk perspectief


AESTHETICS

Burke, Edmund — A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful

Schiller, Friedrich — On the Aesthetic Education of Man (translation by Reginald Snell)

Rand, Ayn — The Romantic Manifesto: A Philosophy of Literature

Scruton, Roger — Art and Imagination

Scruton, Roger — The Aesthetic Understanding: Essays in the Philosophy of Art and Culture

Scruton, Roger — Beauty

Scruton, Roger — The Aesthetics of Architecture

Scruton, Roger — The Classical Vernacular: Architectural Principles in an Age of Nihilism

Scruton, Roger — The Aesthetics of Music

Scruton, Roger — Understanding Music

Scruton, Roger — Death-Devoted Heart: Sex and the Sacred in Wagner's Tristan und Isolde

Scruton, Roger — The Ring of Truth: The Wisdom of Wagner's Ring of the Nibelung


CULTURE AND CIVILISATION (III)

Murray, Charles — Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950

Weaver, Richard M. — Ideas Have Consequences: Expanded Edition

Bloom, Allan — Closing of the American Mind: How Higher Education Has Failed Democracy and Impoverished the Souls of Today's Students

Huntington, Samuel P. — The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order

Dalrymple, Theodore — Not With a Bang But a Whimper: The Politics and Culture of Decline

Scruton, Roger — The Politics of Culture and Other Essays

Scruton, Roger — Modern Culture

Scruton, Roger — Culture Counts: Faith and Feeling in a World Besieged

Scruton, Roger — The West and the Rest: Globalisation and the Terrorist Threat

Scruton, Roger — The Need for Nations

Scruton, Roger — Immigration, Multiculturalism and the Need to Defend the Nation State

Buchanan, Patrick J. — The Death of the West: How Dying Populations and Immigrant Invasions Imperil Our Culture and Civilization

Dalrymple, Theodore — In Praise of Prejudice: The Necessity of Preconceived Ideas


ORIENTAL HISTORY

Woodman Cleaves, Francis — The Secret History of the Mongols: For the First Time Done into English out of the Original Tongue and Provided with an Exegetical Commentary

Friar William of Rubruck — The Mission of Friar William of Rubruck: His Journey to the Court of the Great Khan Mongke, 1253-1255 (eds. Peter Jackson and David Morgan)

Ratchnevsky, Paul — Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy

Polo, Marco — The Travels (translated by Ronald Latham)

Jackson, Peter — The Mongols and the West, 1221-1410

Rossabi, Morris — The Mongols and Global History

Weatherford, Jack — Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World


RELIGION (VI)

Evola, Julius — The Doctrine of Awakening: The Attainment of Self-Mastery According to the Earliest Buddhist Texts

Evola, Julius — Taoism: The Magic, the Mysticism

Evola, Julius — Meditations on the Peaks: Mountain Climbing as Metaphor for the Spiritual Quest

Evola, Julius — Zen: The Religion of the Samurai


MILITARY THEORY AND THE PHILOSOPHY OF WAR

Sun Tzu — The Art of War

Clausewitz, Carl von — On War

Evola, Julius — The Aryan Doctrine of Battle and Victory

Evola, Julius — Metaphysics of War: Battle, Victory and Death in the World of Tradition


CRITICISM OF ISLAM

Reilly, Robert R. — The Closing of the Muslim Mind: How Intellectual Suicide Created the Modern Islamist Crisis

Luxenberg, Christoph — The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran: A Contribution to the Decoding of the Language of the Koran

Spencer, Robert — The Truth About Muhammad: Founder of the World's Most Intolerant Religion

Spencer, Robert (ed.) — The Myth of Islamic Tolerance: How Islamic Law Treats Non-Muslims

Spencer, Robert — “Not Peace But a Sword: The Great Chasm Between Christianity and Islam”, Catholic Answers, March 25, 2013

Spencer, Robert — Religion of Peace?: Why Christianity Is and Islam Isn't

Ye’or, Bat — The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians Under Islam

Ye’or, Bat — The Decline of Eastern Christianity: From Jihad to Dhimmitude

Ye’or, Bat — Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide

Ye’or, Bat — Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis

Ye’or, Bat — Europe, Globalization, and the Coming of the Universal Caliphate

Ye’or, Bat — Understanding Dhimmitude

Fernández-Morera, Darío — The Myth of the Andalusian Paradise: Muslims, Christians, and Jews Under Islamic Rule in Medieval Spain

Horton, George — The Blight of Asia


RACE REALISM

Herrnstein, Richard and Murray, Charles — The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life

Rushton. J. Philippe — Race, Evolution, and Behavior

Levin, Michael — Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean

Jensen, Arthur R. — The g Factor

Lynn, Richard and Vanhanen, Tatu — IQ and the wealth of nations

Sarich, Vincent and Miele, Frank — Race: The Reality of Human Differences

Lynn, Richard — Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis

Lynn, Richard — Eugenics: A reassessment

Lynn, Richard — Dysgenics: Genetic deterioration in modern populations

Taylor, Jared and Lynn, Richard — Paved With Good Intentions: The Failure of Race Relations in Contemporary America

Taylor, Jared — The Real American Dilemma: Race, Immigration, and the Future of America

Taylor, Jared — White Identity: Racial Consciousness in the 21st Century

Taylor, Jared — Face to Face with Race


PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

Gross, Paul and Levitt, Norman — Higher Superstition: The Academic Left and Its Quarrels with Science

Sokal, Alan and Bricmont, Jean — Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals' Abuse of Science


EDUCATION

Gatto, John Taylor — Dumbing Us Down: The Hidden Curriculum of Compulsory Schooling

Gatto, John Taylor — The Exhausted School

Gatto, John Taylor — A Different Kind of Teacher: Solving the Crisis of American Schooling

Gatto, John Taylor — The Underground History of American Education

Gatto, John Taylor — Weapons of Mass Instruction: A Schoolteacher's Journey through the Dark World of Compulsory Schooling

Murray, Charles — Real Education: Four Simple Truths for Bringing American Schools Back to Reality

Holt, John — Freedom and Beyond

Holt, John — How Children Fail

Holt, John — How Children Learn

Holt, John — Instead of Education: Ways to Help People Do Things Better

Holt, John — The Underachieving School

Sowell, Thomas — Education: Assumptions Versus History

Tooley, James — Private Education Is Good For The Poor


ENVIRONMENTALISM

Lomborg, Bjørn — The Skeptical Environmentalist

Lomborg, Bjørn — Cool It: The Skeptical Environmentalist's Guide to Global Warming

Lomborg, Bjørn — Smart Solutions to Climate Change, Comparing Costs and Benefits

Scruton, Roger — How to Think Seriously About the Planet: The Case for an Environmental Conservatism


URBAN PLANNING

Jacobs, Jane — The Death and Life of Great American Cities

Jacobs, Jane — The Economy of Cities

Jacobs, Jane — Cities and the Wealth of Nations

Kohr, Leopold — The Inner City: From Mud To Marble


MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS

Hicks , Stephen R. C. — Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault (Expanded Edition)

DiLorenzo, Thomas — Organized Crime: The Unvarnished Truth About Government

DiLorenzo, Thomas — The Food and Drink Police: America's Nannies, Busybodies, and Petty Tyrants

King, Theodore — The War on Smokers and the Rise of the Nanny State

Trebach, Arnold (ed.) — Friedman and Szasz on Liberty and Drugs: Essays on the Free Market and Prohibition

Woods, Thomas — Nullification: How to Resist Federal Tyranny in the 21st Century

Woods, Thomas — Meltdown: A Free-Market Look at Why the Stock Market Collapsed, the Economy Tanked, and Government Bailouts Will Make Things Worse


VARIOUS SUBJECTS

Emerson, Ralph Waldo — Essays: First Series

Emerson, Ralph Waldo — Essays: Second Series

Emerson, Ralph Waldo — Nature

Emerson, Ralph Waldo — The American Scholar

Thoreau, Henry David — Walden

Ossendowski, Ferdynand — Beasts, Men and Gods

Roosevelt, Theodore — The Rough Riders

Roosevelt, Theodore — African Game Trails

Roosevelt, Theodore — Through the Brazilian Wilderness

Stanley, Henry M. — Through the Dark Continent

Campbell, Joseph — The Hero with a Thousand Faces


NOVELS AND NOVELLAS

Bulwer-Lytton, Edward — Rienzi, the last of the Roman tribunes

Kipling, Rudyard — Kim

Kipling, Rudyard — The Man Who Would Be King

Hesse, Hermann — Siddhartha

Hesse, Hermann — Das Glasperlenspiel

Weverbergh, Lucien — Gilgamesj herschrijven

Morris, William — The Story of Sigurd the Volsung and the Fall of the Niblungs

Tolkien, J. R. R. — The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún

Tolkien, J.R.R. — The Lord of the Rings

White, T.H. — The Once and Future King

Renault, Mary — Fire from Heaven

Herbert, Frank — Dune

Heinlein, Robert A. — Between Planets

Heinlein, Robert A. — Starship Troopers

Heinlein, Robert A. — Stranger in a Strange Land

Heinlein, Robert A. — The Moon is a Harsh Mistress

Rand, Ayn — Anthem

Rand, Ayn — The Fountainhead

Rand, Ayn — Atlas Shrugged


POETRY

Tennyson, Alfred (Lord Tennyson) — “Ulysses”

Kipling, Rudyard — “The Peace of Dives”

Kipling, Rudyard — “If—”

Kipling, Rudyard — “The White Man’s Burden”

Kipling, Rudyard — “Recessional”

George, Stefan — Der siebente Ring

George, Stefan — Der Stern des Bundes

George, Stefan — Das neue Reich


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